Ergonomics

What is Ergonomics?

Ergonomics is the scientific discipline concerned with interaction between humans and artifacts and design of systems where people participate. It deals with design of systems that people use at work and in leisure, tools that are used and procedures and practices. The purpose of the design activities is to match systems, jobs, products, and environments to the physical and mental abilities and limitations of people.

Occupational Risk Factors

Repetitive Motion or Prolonged (Static) Exertion
Forceful Exertions (Maximum Voluntary Contractions or Exertions, MVC or MVE)
Awkward (Non-neutral) Postures
Out of "power zone" (muscle inefficiency, insufficiency)
Muscle transfer during movement
Movement prior to muscle involvement
Hyperextension, flexion, joint movement
Compression, friction, tensile stress on tendons, blood vessels, nerves

Combination of Repetition, Force and Awkward Posture
Pinch or Open-Hand (Finger tip) Grasping
Localized Contact, Direct Pressure or Impact on Soft Tissue
Vibration (Hand/Arm or Segmental, Whole Body)
Harsh Environmental Conditions (Cold Temperatures, Thermal Discomfort, Poor Lighting/Visibility, Air Quality, Ventilation, etc.)
Long Duration (Inadequate Rest, Recovery)

Non-Occupational (Personal) Risk Factors

Family History, Age
Systemic Disease (Rheumatoid Arthritis, Diabetes, Hypothyroidism, Kidney Disease, Pernicious Anemia or B12 deficiency)
Previous Injury, e.g., fractures, sprain fractures, hernia, back injuries
Smoking, Alcoholism, Vitamin Deficiency (B6, Niacin), Lack of Rest
De-conditioning, Poor Physical Fitness, Obesity
High Risk Hobbies or Extracurricular Activities